Georgia is located on the crossroad of Europe and Asia, particularly, in Caucasus. To the west it is bordered by the Black Sea, to the north - by Russian Federation, to the south-east - Azerbaijan, to the south - Armenia and Turkey.
Georgia lies at the oldest transportation crossroad, which connected and connects Northern and Southern, Western and Eastern countries. It was traversing Europe - Asia transport highway - the old Silk Road.
Georgia has a history of 3-4 thousand years. It has undergone all stages of social forms that existed until today. Development of pre-class relations started in the era of the second millennium BC. Myth about Argonauts clearly demonstrates the social-political development of one of Georgian Kingdoms of that period – Colchis and its power. King Pharnavaz has special role in shaping Georgian statehood, who contributed to creation of Georgian alphabet along with country's strengthening in political terms. Georgian is one of most unique alphabets in the world. Along with alphabet adoption of Christianity as state religion has played huge role in Georgian history. Initially, Andrew the Apostle preached Christianity in Georgia, but it was adopted as state religion after preaching of St. Nino, in 337.
Georgian history had undergone various periods of social and cultural development. One of such periods is related to the King David the Builder (1089-1125) who laid grounds for strengthening of Georgian state. Many cultural monuments were build during his time. Gelati Monastery is one of most beautiful among them. David the Builder’s policy was faithfully continued by his great-granddaughter Queen Tamar. Golden Age in Georgia is exactly connected to her name. Many art works were created during her times, among which "The Knight in the Panther's Skin" has special importance in the world literature. Georgia has a big list of heroic kings, from which Heraclius II of Georgia can also be distinguished. At the age of 80 he had participated in more than 100 battles. Treaty of Georgievsk concluded in 1983 with Russia is connected to his name, after which Georgia gained its independence only on 26th of May 1918, which lasted only for 3 years and Georgia remained within Soviet Union until 1991.
Georgian independence, announced in 1991, is most important fact in Georgia’s modern history. This process is mainly related to the name of Zviad Gamsakhurdia - the first president of the country. Rose Revolution on November 23, 2003 has shown to the world Georgian people's aspiration towards democratic principles.
Georgia is located in Caucasus Region, on the crossroad of Europe and Asia. Entire area of the county is 69700 square meter, which is equal to the area of Switzerland. To the north Georgia has common border of 723 km with Russia. To the south-east it is bordered with Azerbaijan (322 Km.), to the south – Armenia (164 Km.) and to the south-west – Turkey (252 Km.). Georgia is a mountainous country. Likhi Range divides it into eastern and western parts. Historically, wester part of Georgia was known as Colchis and Eastern part as Iberia. Caucasus Mountains are impressive and their height often are more than 5 000 meters from the sea level. Highest mountain in Georgia is Shkhara – 5 201 meters from the sea level. Following mountains are also distinguished by their heights: Kazbegi (5 047 meters), Tetnuldi (4 974 meters) and Ushba (4 710 meters).
Mainly, Georgia is located under two climatic zones. There is sharp distinction between the climates of eastern and western Georgia. Great Caucasus mountain range plays huge role in climate formation and protects the country from inflow of cold air masses from the north. Small Caucasus partially restrains dry and hot air masses from the south. Huge part of western Georgia is characterized by humid subtropical climate. This climate is greatly changed along with increase of height from the sea level. The climate on plain is warm and pleasant. The mountain climate is more severe.
Average winter temperature for wester Georgia is 5 Celsius, and during summer 22 Celsius. Eastern Georgia is characterized by transitional climate from humid subtropical to continental. Most rainy seasons for the region are spring and autumn. Summer and winter are characterized by less precipitations. Snow is usual even in summer for the places, which are located up to 2000 meters from sea level. Average summer temperature for eastern Georgia is 20-24 Celsius and during winter 2-4 Celsius.
Religion Orthodox Christianity in Georgia was adopted as state religion in 327 during King Mirian. conversion of Kartli to Christianity is credited to lady called St. Nino of Cappadocia. The Georgian Apostolic Autocephalous Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church. It is Georgia's dominant religious institution, and a majority of Georgian people affirm their membership in the Church. It asserts apostolic foundation, and its historical roots can be traced to the conversion of the Kingdom of Iberia to Christianity in the 4th century AD .However, according to historical sources, Christianity was preached during first century by Apostle Andrew the First, and afterwards, by apostles St. Simon the zealot, St. Bartholomew and St. Matate.
Georgia is distinguished by Christian ecclesiastical architecture, its originality and antiquity. First churches were built by 5th Century (Bolnisi, Urbnisi) and 11-13th Centuries are the era of Golden Age. Georgian have always been distinguished by religious tolerance. Example of this attitude is Tbilisi, where Georgian church, Muslim mosque, Armenian church and Jewish Synagogue are built together on a one square.
Georgian Language and Alphabet: Georgian language belongs to the Georgian language group of Iberian-Caucasian language family. It is one of oldest of living languages in the world. In Assyrian manuscript of 5th Century “The Book on People and Country” it is written that only 14 nations out of 73 have their own alphabet, included Georgian (Latin, Slavic, Arabic, Indian, Chines, Japanese, Korean, Ethiopian, Greek, Georgian, Armenian, Jewish, Mongolian and Syrian).
Georgians have their unique alphabet, where number of letters exactly coincides with number of consonants; that is why Georgian orthography is easy, where pronounce and written are identical. Creation of Georgian is named after King Pharnavaz (3rd Century BC).